BIOTECH

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
In 2001, PT. Sanbe Farma established the Division of Biotechnology and Research. The division is led by DR. Joseph Marie Hilgers, a senior researcher of breast cancer, who has worked more than 34 years in the field of cancer research, which has resulted in 325 international scientific papers, 200 of them stored in PubMed National Library of Medicine, USA. At first, Biotech and Research division consist of three main laboratories, namely Bioprocess Laboratory, Analytical Laboratory for Biotech-based Products, and Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory as known as SANDIA.In 2005, SANBE Biotech & Research Division is led by DR. Eng. Sukma Nuswantra, Mphil.. Then in 2006, after the inauguration of Santosa Hospital Bandung Central (SHBC), which is a member of the Sanbe Group, Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory, SANDIA, growing become Sandia Biotech Diagnostic Centre (SBDC) which has four laboratories, namely Anatomical Pathology, Clinical Pathology, Microbiology, and Biotechnology. SBDC is now housed in base floor and 2nd floor of Santosa Hospital Bandung Central. SBDC serves both of SBHC patients and patients from outside who want to perform laboratory tests.

LABORATORIES
1. Bioprocess Laboratory. Bioprocess laboratory activities include fermentation processes,that is cell and microbial based production of bioactive compounds (polysaccharides, recombinant proteins, enzymes, etc.). This laboratory is located at Pabrik Unit 3, Cimareme-Padalarang.

2. Analytical Laboratory for Biotech-based Products, activities in Analytical Lab for Biotech-based Products include quality control and analysis of products and clinical trials assessment using DNA, RNA, Protein and Immunological techniques. This laboratory is located at Pabrik Unit 3, Cimareme-Padalarang.

3. Biotechnology Laboratory, SANDIA Biotech Diagnostic Centre (SBDC), Biotechnology Laboratory SBDC provide 4 main services, which is :

A. Diagnosis of various infectious and non-infectious (cancer, mutation, etc..) deseases through analysis of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or RNA (ribonucleic acid) by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. Conventional PCR machines can multiply the target DNA (germs such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, etc.) of one molecule to 1.5 billion molecules in 3 hours. Even with the Real Time PCR, detection of disease can be done within 30 minutes, so the diagnosis of the disease is more quickly and accurately (Source: Laboratory’s Document).

B. Early Detection of Cervical Cancer with Hybrid Capture II Method. The main cause of cervical cancer is Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Previously, cervical cancers detected by cytology method known as Pap smear, which is the abnormal cells caused by HPV infection was observed visually with a microscope. With the development of molecular biology, a new method based on DNA / RNA is discovered, called Hybrid Capture II HPV. This method is more sensitive and accurate. With this method, the high risk group HPV (HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68) cause cervical cancer and HPV Low Risk group (HPV types 6, 11, 42, 43, and 44) cause genital warts can be detected. With the Hybrid Capture II, DNA viruses can be detected without to see the changes in the morphology of cervical cells that are sometimes difficult to see at an early stage of cancer (Source: Laboratory’s Document).

C. Chromosome Analysis or Karyotyping. Genetic abnormalities or genetic disorder is an inborn disease and generally cannot be treated. The main cause is numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities that can be seen by karyotyping techniques. Examples of genetic disorder are Down Syndromes, Turner Syndromes, sex ambiguity, and repeated miscarriages. Although most of the symptoms appear after birth and adulthood, these disorders can be detected as early as possible, even as a baby still in the womb (pre natal). At this moment, sample is taken by Obsgyn Doctor that has been trained with Amniocentesis, Chorionic Villus Sample (CVS), or Cordocentesis technique with a guide of ultrasonography (USG). Child or adult patients, blood samples were taken from the edge. By knowing the genetic abnormalities that occur, the prevention to reduce the negative effects can be done as early as possible (Source: Laboratory’s Document).

d.DNA Test (Paternity/Maternity). Until now, the data identifier is available only by virtue of known birth, blood type, fingerprint, the pattern of teeth, facial resemblance, the story of the lineage, or just a suspicion of the facts. The data are not enough to determine the biological relationship because of various factors such as subjectivity and validity of reference sources that exist and constraints of space and time. Therefore, DNA testing should be done. DNA tests done to ensure that biological kinship by comparing the DNA profile (Figure 2.6) that has typical of the father, mother and child. Paternity DNA test, Maternity DNA Test or both are done by comparing the determinant gene from the locus of different DNA, so the percentage of similarity between the objects being compared can be applied. With an accuracy of 99.99%, this test can provide support and evidence both scientifically and legally to various problems as follows:

• Determination of inheritance rights
• Proof of insurance and law
• Babies swapped
• Determination of the biological child
• Looking for the father or mother
• Determination of lineage
(Source: Laboratory’s Document)